Table of Contents

Start of Book

List of illustrations page

List of tables

Acknowledgements

List of abbreviations

i The history of railways

2 Railways and the Italian state in the nineteenth century

I Introduction 1

It Railway regimes in continental Europe, Great Britain 13 and the United States

III Railways at war

IV Italy's Railway Acts

V Conclusions

3 Railway building in Italy

I Introduction

II Railways in Italy and Europe

III Economic unification

IV Railway building before the 1865 Railway Act

V Railway building after the 1865 Railway Act Los

VI Railway building after the 1879 and 1885 Railway Acts 1 i

VII Conclusions

4 Railway traffic i

I Introduction

II Railway rates

III The development of railway traffic in Italy

IV International lines

V The role of ports

VI Railway traffic between northern and southern Italy

VII The openness of the northern Italian railway network

VIII Railways and traditional inland transport in northern 147 Italy

IX Railways and coastal shipping

X The economic effects of railways

XI Conclusions

5 Conclusions

Bibliography

Index

I Milan central railway station in the 188os Page

2 Milan central railway station, 1931

3 Taxes and subsidies as a percentage of net revenue for 49 the Upper Italy Railway Company

4 Railway building in Italy until 1861

5 Venice's land and sea trade

6 The amount of wood and coal transported from Venice

7 Venice's railway station in the early 19oos

i The number of stations in Piedmont, Lombardy and 75 Venetia, 188o

2 Traffic density on northern Italian lines, i 88o

3 Station revenue in Piedmont, Lombardy and Venetia, 188o

i Population estimates for various European countries page 69 (in millions)

2 Length of railway track in various European countries (km)

3 Length of railway track per i,ooo inhabitants in various 69 European countries (kni)

4 Length of railway track in Lombardy, Piedmont and 70 Belgium (kni)

5 Traffic units (TU) in various European countries

6 Traffic density in various European countries (TU/km)

7 Railway construction in Italy in five-year periods (km)

8 Population in Italian regions (ooos)

9 Population density in Italian regions (inhabitants per krn2)

t o Railway length in Italian regions (km)

i 1 Railway length per i,ooo inhabitants in Italian regions (km)

12 Weighted coefficient of variation (VW) for railway length 78 per i,ooo inhabitants in Italian and German regions

13 Large cities in 1871 and 191 1

14 Percentage of active population working in agriculture 9o

15 Percentage of rejected Italian recruits, 1862-76, with 91 reasons for rejection

16 Illiteracy rates in Europe (percentage of population over 92 6 years old)

17 State spending on education in Europe (percentage of GDP)

18 Illiteracy rates in Italian regions (percentage of population 93 over 6 years)

19 Gross domestic product per capita in Italian regions, 95 1911 (lire)

20 Rail and road length per i,ooo inhabitants in Italian regions, 1885-6

21 Percentage of double-track line in European countries, 1910

22 Railway goods revenue of various European railway 120 companies (lire per TK)

23 Railway goods revenue of Italian railway companies 138 (lire per TK)

24 Traffic output of Italian railway companies (TU)

25 North-south traffic in 1877 (tonnes)

26 Traffic flows to and from the northern Italian railway 139 network (tonnes)

27 Composition of north-south railway traffic in 1884 (tonnes)

28 The openness of the northern Italian railway network (%)

29 Composition of exports and imports by rail with Austria 146 in 1884 (tonnes)

30 Composition of exports and imports by rail with France 146 in 1884 (tonnes)

31 Composition of exports and imports by rail with Switzerland 146 in 1884 (tonnes)

32 Railway and water transport rates from Venice (lire per 148 tonne)